Category: Climate Change Impacts

Queensland floods kill half a million drought-stressed cattle

Queensland floods kill half a million drought-stressed cattle

By Elisa Jiménez Alonso

After a long-lasting drought, Queensland, Australia, has been hit by extreme rain reaching up to 1.4 metres in some areas – twice the amount that falls in London in a year. What started as a sigh of relief in drought-stricken communities quickly turned into floods that destroyed homes, infrastructure and left an estimated 500,000 cattle dead.

Michael Guerin, CEO of AgForce, a peak organisation representing Queensland’s rural producers, said there was no doubt this was a disaster of unprecedented proportions that will take the industry decades to recover calling it a massive humanitarian crisis. “The speed and intensity of the unfolding tragedy makes it hard to believe that it’s just a week since farmers’ elation at receiving the first decent rains in five years turned to horror at the devastating and unprecedented flood that quickly followed,” he added.

Rachael Anderson, a farmer in western Queensland lost 2,000 cattle, about half of her livestock. The losses have put her business under severe financial stress, not sure how she will be able to make repayments to her bank in six months. She added, “we can’t get loans because we’ve got nothing to borrow against, none of us have got anything left. I’m not going to lie, it will finish some people up, but others will be rebuilding.” In the meantime, the rotting bodies of dead livestock and stagnant floodwaters are creating an unbearable stench, but they are also polluting the creek Anderson’s station was using as water supply to wash clothes and brush teeth.

The crippling livestock losses come after more than five years of debilitating drought. Now, whole rural communities are fighting to survive as farmers are left with nothing but debt. Guerin implored governments to make sure these communities get long-term support to recover from these recent shocks including bringing in specialist well-being professionals.

Scott Morrisson, Australian prime minister, confirmed the federal government would provide an immediate in-kind payment of AUS$1 million to affected shires. As of 11 February, insurers had received over 13,500 claims from Townsville, Queensland, alone; the estimated losses are about AUS$165 million.

After the record-setting blistering temperatures of January 2019, bushfires that tore through 200,000 hectares in Tasmania, these extreme floods are just another frightening signal of what climate change is doing to the continent. As Adam Morton and Ben Smee write in The Guardian, Australia is “no stranger to extreme weather – bushfire, flooding, rains and skin-peeling heat are central to its history and mythology – but the contrasts this southern summer have been particularly stark.”


Cover photo by Commonwealth of Australia (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0): An MRH-90 Taipan helicopter from 5th Aviation Regiment delivers livestock feed to communities near Julia Creek to assist graziers affected by severe flooding.
UK vegetable and fruit supplies at risk

UK vegetable and fruit supplies at risk

By Kieran Cooke

A combination of Brexit − Britain’s move to leave the European Union − and climate change is threatening UK vegetable and fruit supplies for its 66 million people.

Brexit-associated delays at ports could result in widespread shortages of a range of imported vegetables and fruit such as lettuces and tomatoes, particularly if the UK crashes out of Europe at the end of March this year with no deal in place.

Now there’s more bad news on the British food front; a just-released report says climate change and resulting abnormal weather conditions are causing significant decreases in the UK’s own vegetable and fruit harvests.

The study, produced by the Climate Coalition in association with the Priestley International Centre for Climate at the University of Leeds in the UK, says about 60% of food consumed in Britain is domestically produced.

The unusually warm summer in 2018 – the hottest ever in England since records began in 1910, according to the report – led to a drop in the onion harvest of 40% and a decline of between 25% and 30% in the carrot crop.

In 2017 the UK’s apple growers lost 25% of their produce due to unseasonably warm weather followed by an unusually late series of frosts.

“It’s really hard work growing fruit and vegetables, but erratic and extreme weather pushes you over the edge”

Matt Smee, co-founder of The Natural Veg Men

The study says climate change-related extreme and unpredictable weather is putting at risk future supplies of potatoes – a staple of the British diet.

“The UK could lose almost three-quarters of the area of land currently well-suited for potatoes by the 2050s under climate projections”, says the report.

Last year there was a 20% drop in potato yields in England and Wales, it says. More than 80% of potatoes consumed in the UK are home-grown.

“The climate extremes of the past few years – including the snowfall and freezing temperatures of February and March 2018 and one of the driest June months in England and Wales since 1910 – have been devastating for UK fruit and vegetable farmers”, the report says.

Matt Smee, who runs a vegetable growing and delivery service in the north-west of England, told the report’s authors that weather patterns in 2018 made his job near-impossible.

“It’s really hard work growing fruit and vegetables, but erratic and extreme weather pushes you over the edge”, says Smee. “I’d be devastated if I had to deal with this year (2018) again.”

Livelihoods at risk

Lee Abbey, head of horticulture at the UK’s National Farmers’ Union (NFU), says farmers’ livelihoods are being hit.

“Farmers and growers are used to dealing with fluctuations in the weather but if we have two or three extreme years in a row it has the potential to put growers out of business.”

The study says that more than half of all farms in the UK report being affected by severe flooding or storms over the past decade, while water shortages in the increasingly hot summer months are a growing problem.

“With climate scientists now predicting stronger and longer-lasting heatwaves for the UK, growers are faced with increasing risks to their operations and survival”, says the study.

The report’s authors say the priority for everyone – not just the food and farming sector – is to work to reduce carbon emissions.

The study reports some positive developments; the NFU says the aim is for the UK’s farming sector to be net zero in its greenhouse gas emissions by 2040. Increasing numbers of British farmers are investing in renewable energy.

Download the report “Recipe for Disaster“.


Kieran Cooke, a founding editor of Climate News Network, is a former foreign correspondent for the BBC and Financial Times. He now focuses on environmental issues.

This article was originally published on Climate News Network.

Cover photo by Agence Producteurs Locaux Damien Kühn on Unsplash
Australia experiences hottest month since records began

Australia experiences hottest month since records began

By Georgina Wade

January 2019 was Australia’s hottest month on record, with the country’s mean temperatures exceeding 30C for the first time since records began in 1910.

The Bureau of Meteorology released its January climate summary pointing to new records for Australia’s mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, deeming them “unprecedented”.

“There’s been so many records it’s really hard to count” said Andrew Watkins, a senior climatologist at the Bureau. 

In addition to the heat extremes, large parts of Australia received significantly less rainfall than usual at only 20% of their normal amounts. Tasmania, an island-state that has been battling bushfires throughout the past month, experienced its driest ever January.

Additional broken records include Port Augusta, which saw its highest January temperature of 49.5C, and a four-day heatwave above 40C in Menindee, which resulted in mass fish kills. Parts of western Queensland saw strings of more than 40 days of temperatures above 40C.

According to the Bureau of Meteorology and the CSIRO, Australia has warmed by 1C since 1910, and will continue to experience increases in average temperature, and a higher frequency of hot days.

The duration of heat waves will increase in every region and a large part of northern Australia will see increases in the average number of days above 35C by two to three times the normal amount.

The Bureau pointed to a delayed northern monsoon and a blockage of cooler air caused by a persistent high-pressure system in the Tasman sea as contributing to the ongoing heatwave.

“The warming trend which has seen Australian temperatures increase by more than 1C in the last 100 years also contributed to the unusually warm conditions,” Watkins said.


Access the Bureau of Meteorology’s Special Climate Statement about the heatwaves in December 2018 and January 2019 by clicking here.

Cover photo by Bureau of Meteorology: Mean daily maximum temperatures, Australia, January 2019. Access the image and more information by clicking here.
Climate change to cause havoc with Mediterranean water resources says European Commission

Climate change to cause havoc with Mediterranean water resources says European Commission

By Will Bugler

The Mediterranean will face mounting challenges to manage its water supplies as climate change drives droughts and floods according to a report by the European Commission. The report, which focusses on the effects of 2˚C of warming, indicates that there is likely to be a divide between central and northern Europe, which can expect more rainfall overall, and the Mediterranean which will suffer drought.

The study, which assumes that land use and water demand remains constant, shows that river flows in the Mediterranean are expected to fall overall, but the region will still experience extreme rain events that will lead to river flooding. This will pose considerable challenges for water dependent sectors such as agriculture. Spain, Portugal and Greece face severe droughts during the summer season which will limit the amount of water available for cooling heavy industry and energy plants.

Groundwater resources are also expected to fall limiting the region’s ability to abstract water and increasing costs. This, coupled with lower soil moisture content, could lead to crop failure and reduced yields. The situation in countries such as Spain is critical, with freshwater resources expected to be insufficient to meet local water needs under a 2-degree warming.

The report urges governments to take action to adapt to such climate impacts through integrated water management policies. Demand for fresh water will need to reduce considerably, through measures such as increasing irrigation efficiency, efficiency increases in cooling processes in industry and energy production, public water savings, a better management of water resources by, for instance, storing winter water in hydropower reservoirs for irrigation water use in summer.

Download the report by clicking here.


Cover photo by Andres Flajszer/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0): Aqueduct in Los Monegros desert, Aragón, Spain.
Drought and conflict can spur climate refugees

Drought and conflict can spur climate refugees

By Tim Radford

Austrian researchers have made it simpler to identify climate refugees, claiming to have established a direct causal link between climate change, conflict and the numbers of migrants.

They are not the first to confirm that there is a statistical association between the likelihood of drought, or heat extremes, and violence. Evidence of cause for any civil or international conflict is always complex and often disputed.

But researchers now say that mathematical techniques provide an indirect connection between formally-established drought conditions and recorded levels of applications for asylum.

“In a context of poor governance and a medium level of democracy, severe climate conditions can create conflict over scarce resources”

The link is conflict, of the kind observed in Tunisia, Libya, Yemen and Syria.

“Climate change will not cause conflict and subsequent asylum-seeking flows everywhere,” said Jesus Crespona Cuaresma of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

“But in a context of poor governance and a medium level of democracy, severe climate conditions can create conflict over scarce resources.”

Specific conditions

He and colleagues report in the journal Global Environmental Change that they looked at data from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees of asylum applications from 157 countries between 2006 and 2015.

They then matched the patterns of asylum bids against conditions in their parent countries, using a measure that scientists call the Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, which provides a guide to the gap between rainfall and heat and drought.

They next assembled a tally measure of battle-related deaths collected by the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme in Sweden. Then they modelled other factors, such as the distance between the countries of origin and destination, the sizes of populations, the migrant networks, the political status of the drought-stressed countries and the known divisions into ethnic and religious groups.

And they found that – in specific circumstances – climatic conditions do lead to increased migration as a consequence of conflict exacerbated by the more severe droughts.

Hard to establish

All conclusions about human behaviour at the political level are difficult to establish. Archaeologists and climate scientists have repeatedly linked the collapse of ancient civilisations to climate change but in most such cases the evidence is circumstantial, and incomplete.

But there is often little or no direct testimony from the faraway past, and no surviving voice to offer a challenge. The connection between climate conditions and human response is less certain in a disputed world.

Researchers have systematically found associations between climate and violence and between climate and the conditions for civil inequality.

Urgent prospect

Some have found an association between drought and the conflict in Syria, but others have disputed the conclusion. Researchers have warned that future climate change could create large numbers of migrants and climate refugees and that both issues are urgent.

But it remains more difficult to establish that climate is the only or even the most pressing factor in any individual case.

So the IIASA finding is a cautious one, backed, the scientists say, by statistical rigour. This identifies climate change, and migration flow, and finds conflict as the causal mediator which links the two, most obviously in the events in the Middle East and North Africa since 2006.

“Our results suggest that climatic conditions, by affecting drought severity and the likelihood of armed conflict, play a statistically significant role as an explanatory factor for asylum-seeking exclusively for countries that were affected by the Arab Spring,” they write.


This article originally appeared on Climate News Network.

Tim Radford, a founding editor of Climate News Network, worked for The Guardian for 32 years, for most of that time as science editor. He has been covering climate change since 1988.

Cover photo by Christian Michelides/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 4.0): Refugees at the bridge connecting Braunau (in Austria) with Simbach (in Germany) waiting and freezing.
2018 extreme weather caused $215 billion in economic losses

2018 extreme weather caused $215 billion in economic losses

By Elisa Jiménez Alonso

Aon’s latest Weather, Climate & Catastrophe Insight – 2018 Annual Report shows that the top 10 global economic loss events were all weather-related with the costliest being Hurricane Michael at $17 billion. The costliest event in terms of insured losses was the November Camp Fire racking up a bill of $12 billion. The total cost of weather-related disasters in 2018 was $215 billion out of the $225 billion total caused by all disasters (including earthquakes).

Top 10 Global Economic Loss Events. Source: Aon.
Top 10 Global Insured Loss Events. Source: Aon.

2017 and 2018 are the costliest back-to-back years for weather-related disasters on record, causing a total of $653 billion in economic losses. $237 billion of those losses were insured making 2017 and 2018 the most expensive back-to-back years for public and private insurers. 2018 was also the 4th costliest year on record for weather-related events with $89 billion of insured losses.

Overall, there were 42 billion-dollar disasters of which 39 were weather-related, 16 of those happened in the United States. Of the 18 billion-dollar insured loss events in 2018 all were weather-related and 13 of those events occurred in the United States. In the 21st century so far, tropical cyclones and severe convective storms represented 59% of global insured losses driven mainly by events taking place in the United States.

Aggregate Insured Loss by Peril Since 2000. Source: Aon.

The deadliest weather-related event were the Monsoon floods in India that led to 1,424 deaths, it sits in second place after the earthquake and tsunami that hit Indonesia in September and killed 2,256 people. Floods accounted for 36% of worldwide fatalities closely followed by earthquakes, which caused 31%. With 10,300 deaths, 2018 ranks among the 12 years with the lowest disaster-related fatality totals since 1950.

Top 10 Human Fatality Events. Source: Aon.

However, the geographic distribution of the numbers of economic losses versus human fatalities still tells a story of severe social inequality. Whereas most of the economic losses happened in wealthy nations such as the United States, Europe, and Japan, the vast majority of deaths (79%) occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. About 1.2 billion people in the Asia-Pacific region live in poverty which greatly impacts their vulnerability, especially when combined with the exposure of the region to extreme weather.

Click here to download the full report.

Executive summary infographic of Aon’s Weather, Climate & Catastrophe Insight. Source: Aon.

Cover photo by Coast Guard News/Flickr (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0): Coast Guard crews provide assistance post-Hurricane Michael in Mexico Beach, Florida, Oct. 14, 2018. The Coast Guard is working with local, state and federal partners for Hurricane Michael post-storm response across northwest Florida. (U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Hunter Medley)
Heavy rains and blocked drains: Nairobi’s recipe for floods

Heavy rains and blocked drains: Nairobi’s recipe for floods

By Sophie Mbugua, Climate Home News

Dirty flood waters, impassable roads and submerged slums have become the norm every time it rains in Nairobi, Kenya’s capital city.

In August, the authorities took drastic action, bulldozing around 2,000 buildings in the flood plain, including shopping malls worth millions of dollars. After a lull, they are due to resume demolitions this month, national media reports.

The ongoing October-December rainy season is on track to bring – mercifully – average volumes of water. Yet the city’s flood risk is rising, as climate change brings more extremes of rainfall. Experts tell Climate Home News better waste management, urban planning and warning systems are needed to protect its growing population.

Numerous informal and formal settlements without adequate sewerage and sanitation services edge onto the three Nairobi Rivers: Mathare, Ngong and Nairobi.

At Hazina village, one of 22 villages in south B division along the Ngong, the river chokes with refuse, making the water hardly visible.

“It’s the village’s dumping site,” Anne Keli, a 46-year-old mother of 12 tells Climate Home News. She has lived in the village for two decades and says flooding has been particularly bad in the past two years.

“The water reaches the village at a high force compared to previous years but gets stuck due to the plastics, paper bags and assorted waste in the river, blocking its flow,” Keli says. “Since we are on a lower area, the run-off from higher areas headed to the river has no place to go as the river is full. So, where else does it go? Into our houses.”

During the long rains in April, Keli’s family left their flooded home and camped in the county commissioner’s grounds. She lost around 30,000 Kenyan shillings ($290) worth of goods from the shop she runs less than a kilometre from the river.

The provincial administration made some efforts to clean the river during the flooding, but as soon as the rainy season ended it clogged up again, Keli says. “People keep building close to the river, reducing its size by day. People are asked to remove the structures with every flood but after the rains, everything moves back to normal.”

Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) has installed more than 72 monitoring stations across the country in a bid to provide more timely and precise information.

Brian Chunguli, a county disaster management official, says a UK-funded programme will allow them to monitor live flooding levels from satellites and alert residents as waters rise.

“We hope to respond before flooding happens, and collected data will inform the disaster policy and interventions as we will compare long term data showing at what rainfall levels has certain areas flooded,” explains Chunguli.

Long-term projections of East African rainfall vary, with most climate models predicting heavier inundations as temperatures rise.

Mary Kilavi, the Nairobi County director of meteorological services, is mapping the areas likely to flood in Nairobi given a specific amount of rainfall. South B and South C on the Ngong river are hotspots, along with Mathare by the Nairobi river.

“We are using a model that simulates surface water flooding using previous city flooding data corrected over time,” she explains. “We want to find out with a specific amount of rainfall, which areas will flood.”

This will help the authorities to move beyond a reactive approach to systematic preparation, she says. “Since weather is given in probabilistic terms, systems don’t act fast. We will establish the probability of achieving the estimated flood causing rainfall, then with stakeholders, agree at what point to act, the actions to take and funds to be set aside for the actions.”

The solutions range from cleaning up waste to creating green urban spaces and changing land management upriver. Many of these face political, as well as practical, obstacles.

There is a directive against building within 30 metres of the riverside, for example, but it is haphazardly enforced. Many owners of the recently demolished structures insisted they had permits to build there.

“It requires funds and land to relocate and rebuild the structures amid political interference, as area politicians incite the residents not to move,” says Barre Ahmed, assistant county commissioner for Starehe sub county.

Dr Lawrence Esho, chair of the Kenya Institute of Planners, calls for a drainage master plan to cover the entire metropolitan area.

“We have a flooding crisis but the issue is bigger than the illegal buildings. It is more of the uphill destruction of land which we are doing nothing about, too much concrete pavements aggregating the run off flow, blocked drains and climate change,” says Esho. “Over the last 20 to 25 years the city has also gone through the change from bungalows built over a huge area to high-rise apartment blocks… without a drainage city master plan change.”

Builders should leave gaps between pavements for grass “to allow the water sip under when it rains,” he advises.

In the meantime, Keli can only make sure she has a quick exit strategy ready. She says: “I worry at every drizzle. But this time, I am prepared with a bag packed for any eventuality to rescue my children. As for the shop, there is little I can do. Until the river is cleaned, I still believe this village will flood if the rain keeps coming as they did these two years.”


This article originally appeared on Climate Home News and is shared under Creative Commons license. This article was produced as part of an African reporting fellowship supported by Future Climate for Africa.

Cover photo by Sophie Mbuaga: The Ngong river is choked with garbage as it passes through Hazina village.
Heatwave kills ‘a third’ of spectacled fruit bats in Australia

Heatwave kills ‘a third’ of spectacled fruit bats in Australia

By Georgina Wade

Researchers from Western Sydney University have concluded that about 23,000 spectacled flying foxes, also known as spectacled fruit bats, died in a two-day heatwave in Northern Australia. Temperatures exceeded 42° C on 26 and 27 November, causing the bats to topple from trees into backyards, swimming pools and other locations. As rescuer David White put it, “it was totally depressing”.

And while the numbers already seem astronomical, they may not entirely representative of the devastation as some settlements were not included in the count. In fact, lead researcher Dr. Justin Welbergen believes the deaths could be as high as 30,000 deaths. He also sees the spectacled fruit bats as a “canary in the coal mine for climate change” because the events raise concerns regarding the fate of animals with more secretive and secluded lifestyles.

Experts have long been concerned about the survival of the spectacled flying foxes. Prior to November, government-backed statistics had estimated that only 75,000 spectacled flying foxes resided in Australia.

Mass deaths amongst the flying foxes used to be attributed to cyclones, but regularly occurring heatwaves have become a bigger, more formidable risk. National Flying Fox Programme Chairman, David Wescott, believes this is a major cause for concern, “it’s been a massive population decline for a species that isn’t under a great deal of pressure outside of these weather events,” he explains.

And the heat is not showing any signs of cooling down anytime soon. Just last week, Sydney experienced its hottest day since 1939 with temperatures reaching 47.3° C, resulting in rescuers working around the clock to save a number of koalas, birds and possums.

Nursing possums with burnt paws caused by hot roads and rehydrating birds that have fallen out of the sky are only some of the tasks rescuers are facing. Because, like the spectacled flying foxes, these native animals are particularly vulnerable to heat stress.

Kristie Harris, Office Manager for the New South Wales Wildlife Information, Rescue and Education Services (Wires) says responses like this are necessary as animals continue to succumb to heat extremes. “Any time we have any type of heat event, we know we’re going to have a lot of animals in need,” Harris said.


Cover photo from Max Pixel (public domain).
WEF 2019 Global Risk Report once again highlights climate threat

WEF 2019 Global Risk Report once again highlights climate threat

By Elisa Jiménez Alonso

The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) most recent global risk ranking in terms of likelihood and impact is spearheaded by climate-related risks. The environmental risk category has been increasingly becoming more prominent since risks related to it started appearing in the top 5 in 2011.

“Of all risks, it is in relation to the environment that the world is most clearly sleepwalking into catastrophe.”

WEF Global Risk Report 2019

The results of climate inaction are becoming more and more visible and in 2019, environmental and societal risks related to climate change account for three of the top five risks by likelihood and four by impact. While the WEF reports that extreme weather was the risk of greatest concern, they also note that “survey respondents are increasingly worried about environmental policy failure: having fallen in the rankings after Paris, failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation jumped back to number two in terms of impact this year.” This response is also very likely linked to the findings of the IPCC in their report about the impacts of 1.5° vs 2.0° C degrees of global warming.

Referencing the results of the C40 study The Future We Don’t Want, completed together with the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, Acclimatise and the Urban Climate Change Research Network, WEF’s report also prominently features the dangers of sea level rise to cities. Today, already 800 million people in more than 570 coastal cities worldwide are vulnerable to 0.5 metres of sea level rise by 2050. Given the rate of urbanisation, the number of people at risk is expected to rise significantly. The importance of coastal adaptation and disaster prevention is strongly emphasised.

In the Future Shocks section, WEF also outlines the potential misuse of weather manipulation tools that could stoke geopolitical tensions. They see the intensification of climate-related impacts as a growing incentive to turn to such technological fixes that could be used to manipulate rainfall or similar. Additionally to any environmental consequences the use of such technology could lead to, WEF raises the concern that it could also be viewed as a hostile act if nations use it unilaterally.

Detailed results: climate change

In terms of likelihood, it is the third consecutive year extreme weather events has remained in first place. And it is also the third consecutive year it places high in terms of impact. Failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation has also remained at top risk since 2015. Additionally, in the top five risks in terms of impact, water crises sits in fourth place and has been in the top five since 2015 – one of its main drivers being climate change.

The evolving risk landscape 2009-2019. WEF 2019.

Extreme weather events and failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation are fairly alone in the top right corner of the risk landscape, indicating their pole position in terms of both likelihood and impact.

Global risk landscape. WEF 2019.

The risk-trends interconnectedness map clearly shows climate change as one of the main risk trends connected not just to environmental but also societal risks such as water and food crises, but also large-scale involuntary migration.

Risk-trends interconnectedness map. WEF 2019.

Download the full report and visit the report reader by clicking here.


Cover photo by Joshua Rawson-Harris on Unsplash
Arctic reindeer numbers decreasing due to climate change

Arctic reindeer numbers decreasing due to climate change

By Georgina Wade

A new report from the American Geophysical Research Union (AGU) finds that the population of caribou in the Arctic has crashed by more than half in the last two decades, falling from 5 million to around 2.1 million animals.

The findings reveal that changes in weather patterns and vegetation are making the Arctic tundra a much less hospitable place for the species. And while reindeer and caribou are the same species (caribou were never domesticated and tend to be much bigger), it’s the wild caribou herds in northern Canada and Alaska that are faring the worst. To date, herds have shrunk by more than 90 percent,a decline so drastic that “that recovery isn’t in sight”, the 2018 NOAA Arctic Report Card stated.

Prof Howard Epstein, an environmental scientist from the University of Virginia and one of the many scientists involved in the research behind the Arctic Report Card, warned that warming in the region shows no signs of abating. “We see increased drought in some areas due to climate warming, and the warming itself leads to a change in vegetation.”

Increases in the number of insects are also a problem. “If it’s warm and windy, the insects are oppressive, and these animals spend so much energy either getting the insects off of them or finding places where they can hide from insects,” Epstein explained.

And while carbon emissions can be reduced at a global scale in an attempt to limit the temperature increase and save the species, the growing pile of evidence suggests warming in the Arctic will continue. Additionally, scientists at AGU have revealed that East Antarctica’s glaciers have begun to “wake up” and show a response to the warming. NASA says that it has detected the first signs of significant melting in a swathe of glaciers in East Antarctica, adding to the mounting evidence of unprecedented climate-driven change at the top and bottom of the planet and signifying the opening of the “world’s freezer”.


Cover photo by Marcus Löfvenberg on Unsplash